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2015山西省成人英语基础知识学习(八)
2014-12-26 14:13:40   来源:   评论:0 点击:
  1.在时间或条件状语从句中现在完成时可代替将来完成时,如:

  I won,t believe you until I have seen you in the jar with my own eyes.

  2.have/has been 和 have/has gone 的区别:

  前者表示“曾到过某地”;后者表示“已经去了某地”(人尚未归来),如:

  He has been to Beijing.她去过北京。

  He has gone to Beijing.她到北京去了。

  3.现在完成时和一般过去时的区別:

  现在完成时表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,强调现在的情况,不能和表示过去时间的状语连用;一般过去时表示过去的动作或状态,和现在不发生联系,如:

  We have lived in the city since 1988.(现在还住)

  They lived in the city in 1988.(不涉及现在是否还住在这城里)

  His mother has been ill for a week.(现在还病着)

  His mother was ill for a week.(现在病好了)

  4.过去完成时

  (1) 过去完成时表示在过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作状态,简称“过去的过去”。 在when,after,before,as soon as,until等引导的复合句中,如果两个表示过去的动作在不 同时间发生,发生在前的要用过去完成时。如:

  When we got there,the plane had already left.

  They went swimming after they had finished their homework.

  We had learned ten lessons by the end of last month.

  We had arrived at the station before nine o’clock.

  She said that she had lived there since 1996.

  He had studied Japanese for five months before he worked here.

  (2) 如果两个动作紧接着发生,尤其在after,as soon as, before等复合句中,也可不用过去完成 时。如:

  As soon as she got home,she gave us a phone call.

  (3) hope,plan,mean,expect,suppose,think等动词有时可用过去完成时表示本打算做而实际 没有实现的事,如:

  I had hoped to help you,but I couldn’t get here in time.

  We had planned to leave on August 6,but there was something wrong with his car.

  (4) 表示持续到过去某时间的行为:即在过去某时间之前已经开始并一直持续到这个过去时间 的行为,常与Since,for等表示一段时间的时间状语连用,如:

  He said they had known each other since their school days.

  (5) 表示将来行为:在时间和条件状语从句中可表示到某个过去的将来时间已完成或一直持续 的行为。如:

  She told us that she would have a holiday when she had finished it.

  5.—般将来时

  (l)shall/will+动词原形:will可用于各人称,shall在英国英语中用于第一人称。口语中两者皆常由,ll代替。如:

  We shall/will (or weil) finish today’s work before dark.

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