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2015山西省成人英语基础知识学习(十五)
2014-12-29 10:48:50   来源:   评论:0 点击:
  注意:为保持句子平衡,可用“it ”作形式主语,而将真正主语动词不定式放在后边,句型为: It is/was. . . to do sth.如:

  It is not easy to grasp English in a short time.

  It was important for him to solve the problem then.

  1.作宾语:多在单宾语及物动词后用作宾语,有时也可用在某些复合宾语及物词及个別双宾 语及物动词后。如:

  I want to have a walk after supper.

  He considered it his duty to support his family.

  She doesn’t know how to run the machine.

  不定式作宾语的结构为:及物动词+ to do.动词常用:advise,agree,ask,begin,continue, decide,expect,forget,hope,learn,like,manage,mean,pretend,start, try,want,wish 等 0 2.作表语:连系动词一般都是be。如:

  Our duty is to clean the office and the windows in it.

  His dream is to become an expert in computer in the future.

  不定式作表语一般结构是:be to do sth. 3.作定语可表示主谓、动宾、地点、时间、方式等多种语义关系。如:

  Do you still have anything to say?

  Mr. Li is the first to get to the library.

  不定式作定语必须放在所修饰的名词后,与所修饰的名词可以是逻辑上的主谓关系或逻辑上的动宾关系。 如果不定式是不及物动词,则后面须跟一个介词,如:

  We have nothing to worry about.

  The Pierres had only a cold room to live in.

  She has no chair to sit on.

  4.作状语:表示多种语义,如B的、原因、程度等。如 They went out to have a walk.(表示 S 的)

  I was really surprised to hear the news.(原因)

  He is too young to join the army.(结果)

  To tell you the truth, I don’t like our Chinese teacher.(修饰全句)

  5.作补语。

  They want us to keep silent.

  He asked me to turn down the radio.

  不定式作补语结构为:及物动词十sb. /sth. to do. • •

  注意:

  ①如果及物动词为使役动词(let,have,make)或感觉动词(see,hear,watch,notice*listen to, look at,feel等),动词不定式不带“ to”,如:

  He made us sweep the floor three times a day. I saw him leave the meeting room early. We always hear her sing popular songs. I noticed the man enter the store.

  His mother made him write a two—thousand —word article.

  但该类句子变为被动句时则要加上“to”,如:

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