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2015山西省成人英语基础知识学习(二十)
2014-12-29 11:27:29   来源:   评论:0 点击:
  1.分词的用法

  分词具有动词、副词和形容词的特征,一般用作定语、状语、表语或补足语。

  (1) 作定语

  分词是单词时,一般放在名词前面,分词是短语时,往往放在名词后面。如:

  A burning stick may be dangerous to the house.

  The lady standing over there is our physics teacher.

  A broken mirror is lying on the ground.

  We visited the school built 100 years ago.

  分词作定语时,①如果用现在分词,表示动作正在进行、经常性动作或当时的状态; ②如果 用过去分词,则表示动作已完成或被动。

  例:The man standing by the gate is my younger brother.

  Please tell the children playing outside not to make so much noise.

  The house built in 1996 now has become a museum.

  A pupil named Salano stood up to answer the question.

  注意:如果分词动作与主句谓语动作有先后关系,一般不用现在分词作定语,而变成定语从句。例••误:He criticized the student breaking the window.

  IE : He criticized the student who had broken the window.

  (2) 作状语

  例:Hearing the good news,they jumped with joy.(时间)

  She sat there,reading a newspaper.(伴随)

  Being so poor in those days,we couldn’t get enough to eat.(原因)

  Professor Wang walked into the room,followed by six students.(方式)

  注意下列情况: ①分词作状语必须和主句主语保持一致。如果两者为逻辑上主谓关系,分词用现在分词;如果 两者为逻辑上动宾关系或被动关系,则用过去分词。 例:Seen from the hill,the city looks beautiful. Seeing from the hill,we found the city beautiful. They went out of the hall,talking and laughing. ②分词完成式作状语表示的动作发生在主句谓语动作之前。

  例:Having visited the library,they went to visit the computer room.

  Having been shown around the school,they were led to see the lab.

  ③为了使意思明确,有时在分词前加when,while,before,after,once等。

  例:When staying in Lianyungang,I visited the famous writer. Once seen,it will never be forgotten.

  After sleeping for half an hour, she continues to write her article.

  While listening to the speaker,he nodded from time to time.

  (3) 作表语已完全形容词化,可被very’rather修饰,可有比较等级。

  例:The music is very interesting ; I am interested in it.

  The football was exciting and we were excited after watching it.

  The glass is broken and it lies there for a long time.

  现在分词作表语说明主语所具有的特征或性质,过去分词作表语说明主语所处的状态和位置。

  更多资讯,请关注山西省成人高等教育网 http://sxckz.com

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