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2015山西省成人英语基础知识学习(二十一)
2014-12-29 11:37:26   来源:   评论:0 点击:
  (4)宾语补足语用于表示感觉、致使等动词(如see,watch, hear, feel, smell,notice,observe, find, discover, have, get, leave, keep, set 等)后。

  例:He once heard someone singing the song in English.

  My watch is broken. I have to get it repaired.

  Just then I saw the two thieves climbing into the house.

  His English is so poor that he can’t make himself understood.

  分词作补足语应分析分词与所补足的词之间的关系,如果两者为逻辑上的主谓关系,分词用现在分词;如果两者为逻辑上的动宾关系或被动关系,则用过去分同。

  例:I heard him singing a pop song when passing from the office.

  The two cheats had the fire burning all night long.

  The gentleman was seen stealing the bag from the lady.

  注意:在感觉动词see,hear,watch,notice,feel等后的宾语补足语可用现在分id,也可用不定 式。现在分词表示动作正在进行,不定式表示动作发生了(即动作的全过程)。

  例:We saw them crossing the street just then.(正进行)

  We saw them croSvS the street and went into the shop.(已完成)

  3. 现在分同的时态和语态

  (1) 主动语态一般时——多表不主动的、正在进行的行为。如:

  His jokes set all the people laughing.

  他的笑话逗得所有的人大笑。

  (2) 主动语态完成时——表示谓语行为之先的行为,主要作状语。如:

  Having finished the article,the scientist sent it to be published.

  那科学家写完文章后就寄去发表。

  (3) 被动语态一般时——表示其逻辑主语所承受的行为。如:

  The man being questioned doesn't look like a thief.

  正在受到询问的那个人不像是小偷。

  (4) 被动语态完成时一表示其逻辑主语在谓语行为之先所承受的行为。如:

  Having been completed, his book was sent to be published at once.

  他的书一写完就马上送去出版了。 现在分词的否定形式:在其前加否定词nm构成。注意•复合形式的现在分词中,not不可置于 having 与 being 之后。如:

  Not knowing anything about her death,he went on writing to her every month.

  他不知道她巳死了,仍然还每个月给她写信。

  Not having read (不用 Having not read) the hook,she didn’t know who David was.

  她没有读过那本书,不知道大卫是谁。

  Not being helped (不用 Being not helped) by anybody,he*s sure about his success.

  他虽然孤立无援,却对成功满怀把握。

  4. 过去分词与现在分词(主动语态一般时)的区別

  (1) 现在分词表示主动的行为,而过去分词则多表示被动的行为。如:

  The man killing pigs is a butcher.

  (2) 现在分同多表示正在进行的动作,而过去分词则多表示已完成的动作。如:

  He found the flag falling slowly onto the ground. He found the flag fallen onto the ground.

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